Haplogroups description


Haplogroup

Age of origin

Place of origin

E1b1b1a1-M78
~18.600 years (Cruciani et al., 2007)

Northeastern Africa

Bidirectional migrations between northeastern and eastern Africa (at least 2 episodes between 23.9-17.3 ky and 18.0-5.9 ky ago), trans-Mediterranean migrations directly from northern Africa to Europe (mainly in the last 13.0 ky), and flow from northeastern Africa to western Asia between 20.0 and 6.8 ky ago (Cruciani et al., 2007).

G-M201
~23.000 years (Hallast et al., 2015)

Armenian Highland

Linked with post-ice-age expansions in Europe. Associated with the spread of agriculture, especially in the European Context (Rootsi et al., 2012)

I-M170
~20.600 years (Hallast et al., 2015)

Balkan

It is the only major clade of the Y phylogeny that is widespread over Europe but virtually absent elsewhere. Hg I could have played a central role in the process of human recolonization of Europe from isolated refuge areas after the Last Glacial Maximum (Rootsi et al., 2004)

J1-M267
~24.000 years (Semino et al., 2004)

Near East

It was spread by two temporally distinct migratory episodes, the most recent one probably associated with the diffusion of Arab people who, mainly from the 7th century A.D., expanded to northern Africa. The first migration, probably in Neolithic times, brought J-M267 to Ethiopia and Europe. The lineage shows its highest frequencies in the Middle East, North Africa, and Ethiopia (Semino et al., 2004)

J2-M172
~18.500 years (Semino et al., 2004)

Near East

Associated with the spread of agriculture, especially in the European Context (Semino et al., 2004)

R1b1a2-M269
~11.000 years (Myres et al., 2011)

Near East

Spread to Europe with the Neolithic farmers from the Levant (Myres et al., 2011)

R1a1a-M198
~15.000 years (Underhill et al., 2010)

Indus Valley

Have high frequency in South Asia and Eastern Europe. Consistent with its wide geographic spread, the coalescent time estimates correlate with the timing of the recession of the Last Glacial Maximum and predate the upper bound of the age estimate of the Indo-European language tree (Underhill et al., 2010)

T-M184
~30.000 years (Mendez et al., 2011)

Near East

This rare and informative haplogroup has a complex history of dispersal within the Near East and from the Near East to Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. The presence of different subclades of T chromosomes in Europe may be explained by both the spread of Neolithic farmers and the later dispersal of Jews from the Near East (Mendez et al., 2011)